Keharusan Bagi Seseorang Untuk Tidak Berbuat Sesuatu Karena Menimbulkan Kerugian Disebut

Keharusan Bagi Seseorang Untuk Tidak Berbuat Sesuatu Karena Menimbulkan Kerugian Disebut

In today’s complex world, decisions made at individual, organizational, and governmental levels can have far-reaching consequences. One guiding principle that often emerges in discussions about responsible decision-making is the precautionary principle. This principle dictates that if an action or policy has the potential to cause harm to the public or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if there is no conclusive scientific evidence of harm.

Dalam hukum dan etika, konsep yang mewajibkan seseorang untuk tidak melakukan suatu tindakan karena dapat menimbulkan kerugian bagi orang lain atau masyarakat disebut sebagai “kewajiban negatif” atau “larangan”.

Definisi Kewajiban Negatif

Kewajiban negatif adalah suatu kewajiban yang mewajibkan seseorang untuk tidak melakukan suatu tindakan tertentu. Hal ini berbeda dengan kewajiban positif, yang mewajibkan seseorang untuk melakukan suatu tindakan tertentu.Contoh kewajiban negatif antara lain:

  • Larangan untuk tidak mencuri
  • Larangan untuk tidak membunuh
  • Larangan untuk tidak menyebarkan informasi palsu atau fitnah

Kewajiban negatif ini didasarkan pada prinsip “tidak merugikan orang lain” (non-maleficence) dan bertujuan untuk melindungi hak-hak orang lain serta menjaga ketertiban dan keamanan masyarakat.

What is the Precautionary Principle?

The precautionary principle serves as a safeguard against risks where scientific understanding is uncertain, incomplete, or inconclusive. It emphasizes the need for careful assessment and proactive measures to prevent harm before it occurs. Originating in environmental and public health debates, the principle has expanded to various domains, including economics, technology, and public policy.

Key Aspects of the Precautionary Principle

  1. Risk Assessment: Before undertaking an action, potential risks are thoroughly evaluated based on the best available scientific data.
  2. Proportionality: The measures taken should be proportional to the potential severity of the harm, balancing costs and benefits.
  3. Public Participation: Stakeholders, including the public, are involved in decision-making processes to ensure transparency and accountability.

Examples of Applying the Precautionary Principle

  • Environmental Conservation: In cases where a new chemical is introduced into the environment, precautionary measures might involve conducting thorough environmental impact assessments before approval.
  • Public Health: When assessing the safety of a new drug, regulatory agencies may require extensive clinical trials to ensure potential risks are minimized.
  • Technological Innovation: Before deploying new technologies with uncertain long-term impacts, precautionary steps might include pilot studies or regulatory frameworks to monitor and mitigate risks.

Criticisms and Challenges

While the precautionary principle promotes responsible decision-making, it is not without criticism. Critics argue that overly stringent application could stifle innovation and economic growth, leading to unnecessary regulatory burdens. Balancing precaution with innovation remains a constant challenge in policy-making.


The precautionary principle underscores the importance of foresight and responsibility in decision-making. By prioritizing prevention over reaction, individuals and societies can navigate uncertainties more effectively while safeguarding collective well-being. Whether in environmental conservation, public health, or technological advancement, embracing precautionary measures can mitigate potential harms and foster sustainable progress.

In essence, refraining from actions that pose potential harm, guided by the precautionary principle, represents a proactive stance towards building a safer and more resilient future.

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